Dental implant procedure refers to a process of restoring damaged or lost teeth. It involves utilizing dental implants i.e. titanium-made root devices resembling a collection of teeth or a tooth in restoration procedure. Implants are normally strong, durable and cannot be distinguished from the natural teeth as their behavior and appearances is much similar to that of natural teeth and are capable of holding one or a number of teeth via a bridge or overdenture. Root canal failure, mouth trauma, congenital defects, tooth decay, gum disease or excessive wearing of the teeth may require utilizing dental implants procedure to rectify these conditions.
There exists two major dental implants procedure i.e. fibrointegrated and osseointegrated implant however; the most preferred one is osseointegrated implant.
Dental implants procedure involves various stages i.e.
Implants procedure planning: prior to beginning of the procedure, detailed and careful planning is essential as it hepls in identifying important structures e.g. the sinus or inferior alveolar nerve in addition to the dimension and shape of the bone to select the most appropriate implant for effective results to be achieved.
Two-dimension radiographs e.g. periapicals or orthopantomographs are usually taken prior to Implants procedure. In certain cases, CT scan may also be obtained or a specialized 3D CAM or CAD may help in planning the case. Whether manual or CT-guided, a stent (an acrylic wafer fitted over either the surface of the bone, the teeth or the mucosa having pre-drilled holes indicating the angle and the position of the implants to be used) may be used often to regulate the placement of various implants.
Basic dental implants procedure
In this stage, the bone is prepared for optimalimplant placement by use of either precision drills or via a hand osteotomes having high regulated speed to avoid either pressure necrosis or in certain cases, burning the bone. After a short duration of time to allow growth of the bone on the implant surface, crowns or a crown can then be placed on to the implant.
Detail dental implants procedure
This stage involves drilling a pilot hole into the edentulous jaw site (without teeth) carefully to avoid the important structures (mental foramen and IAN/ inferior alveolar nerve within the mandible). Normally drilling involves several steps. Progressively wider drills are used to expand the pilot hole based on the width and the length of the implant, great care should be taken to prevent causing any damage to the bone cells or osteoblasts by overheating.
A cooling water or saline spray is used to maintain the bone temperature below 47 degrees after which the implant is screwed into position at exact torque to avoid overloading of the surrounding bone which might lead to osteonecrosis (death of the bone), which might cause implant failure to fully bond or integrate with the bone.